A Review of Artificial Immune System Based Security Frameworks for MANET

Mobile ad hoc home security system quotes) are collections of wireless mobile devices that form a communication network with restricted broadcast range, limited resources and without fixed infrastructure. Routing is a critical function in multi-hop MANETs. At the same time, security in MANETs—especially routing security—presents a number of new and interesting challenges. Communication is achieved by relaying data along routes that are dynamically discovered and maintained through collaboration between the nodes. Advances in the field of artificial immune systems provide an opportunity to improve MANET security and performance.

Artificial immune systems mimic the functionality of the human immune system wherein there is clear distinction between self and non self and this delineation is important in a MANET where there is no centralized management. The high level of protection provided to the human body by an evolved immune system can be applied as a security feature in MANET. The current security techniques proposed for MANET have varying degrees of success due to the dynamic nature of a MANET. This paper will review different strategies for the application of artificial immune systems to MANETs.

MANET is a collection of mobile, decentralized, and self-organized nodes. Securing MANET is a challenge when every node forming the network is a potential threat that could compromise communications using a multitude of approaches.

The Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) [4] protocol uses source routing rather than the hop-by-hop routing used by the majority of other routing protocols, which eliminates the need for frequent route advertisement and neighbor detection packets. Utilizing the concepts and principles of the Human Immune System (HIS) the development of an Artificial Immune System (AIS) for MANET provides an alternative approach to improve network security.

“AIS are intelligent and adaptive systems inspired by the immune system toward real-world problem solving. AIS are adaptive systems inspired by theoretical immunology and observed immune functions, principles and models, which are applied to complex problem domains [5] .”

To improve the performance of AIS algorithms a “danger project” has been commenced based mainly on the immunology Danger Theory which states that the response type of the immune system to the incoming pathogens occurs due to the existence of danger or safe signals from the body tissues affected by the pathogen, as illustrated in Figure 1 [5] .

DCA is a danger project contribution that utilizes the DC role in HIS as forensic navigators and important anomaly detectors. DCs are defined as antigens presenting lymphocytes in the innate immunity; these lymphocytes play a key role in either stimulating or suppressing the adaptive immunity T-cells and hence controlling the immune system’s response.

MANETs share the same basic security goals that occur in other network types. The need for confidentiality, authenticity, integrity, availability, non-repudiation and access control as illustrated in Figure 2, which is the same as in other network types [9] and is generally determined by the importance and sensitivity of applications used or data transmitted. Network control, management, and security goals are harder to achieve in a MANET than in conventional networks [10] due to the mobile decentralized nature of the network.

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